Error Handling Patterns In Swift

Error handling in Objective-C is mostly done through NSError object:

  • For synchronous functions, we pass the double pointer of NSError to a function that can fail and if the function hits a error condition, it will set the error object and return
  • For asynchronous functions, NSError is passed as an argument to the completion block
// Patterns of error handling in Objective-C
- (BOOL)methodThatCanFail:(NSError *__autoreleasing *)err
- (ReturnValue *)methodThatCanFail:(NSError *__autoreleasing*)err
- (void)methodThatCanFail:(void(^)(ReturnValue *, NSError *))block

We can do follow the same Pattern in Swift, but it is not advised. There are more swiftier ways of handling errors and in this post I’ll be discussing them.


An Optional is a box that can contain a value or nothing. This is particularly suited when a function can fail, but we are not concerned about why it failed.

func methodThatCanFail() -> ReturnValue? {

if let value = methodThatCanFail() {
  // method successfully returned a value
} else {
  // method failed


In some cases, ignoring errors might not be an option. We might need to do different things based on why a particular method failed. Using try-catch is best option in this case.

// All the error cases encapsulated as an Enum
enum FetchError: ErrorType {
    case UnknownError
    case UnAuthorized

// function is marked as throws to indicate that it can fail
func fetchPosts() throws -> [Post] {

do {
  // try to run the function
  try fetchPosts()
} catch FetchError.UnAuthorized {
  // handle UnAuthorized case
} catch {
  // handle all the other error cases

Result enum

Lately, I have seen lot of open source projects using this method to handle errors in more functional manner.

This is an extension of Optional pattern where in error information is not discarded.

An Optional, in swift, is implemented as:

enum Optional<T> {
    case Some(T)
    case None

From the above definition, we can see that, .Some can carry set value, but .None has no associated data. Let’s define another enum that has associated error type for .None case as well:

enum Result<T, U: ErrorType> {
  case Success(T)
  case Failure(U)

Now, failing functions can be made to return this Result box

func fetchPosts() -> Result<[Post], FetchError> {

let result = fetchPosts()

switch result {
  case let .Success(posts):
    display(posts: posts)
  case let .Failure(error):
    handle(error: error)

func handle(error: error) {
  switch error {
    case .UnknownError
    case .UnAuthorized

Even though above version might look like it has a lot of code, I really like the fact that every function does what it’s supposed to do. Nothing more, nothing less.

This Result enum is already packed into a neat little library by Antitypical with all the bells and whistles.

I’m still digging into this pattern and will hopely write more about it in future…